India’s healthcare system supports these advanced surgical techniques through a network of well-equipped hospitals and highly skilled cardiac surgeons. The country is also recognized for its cost-effective treatment options, attracting patients from around the world for cardiac care.

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
  • Traditional CABG: Open-heart surgery to bypass blocked coronary arteries.
  • Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass (MIDCAB): A less invasive procedure using smaller incisions.
  • Off-Pump CABG: Surgery performed while the heart is still beating, without the use of a heart-lung machine.
Heart Valve Surgery
  • Valve Repair: Surgical techniques to repair damaged heart valves.
  • Valve Replacement: Replacement of damaged valves with mechanical or biological prostheses.
    • Aortic Valve Replacement: For treating aortic valve diseases.
    • Mitral Valve Replacement: For treating mitral valve diseases.
    • Tricuspid Valve Replacement: For treating tricuspid valve diseases.
    • Pulmonary Valve Replacement: For treating pulmonary valve diseases.
Congenital Heart Surgery
  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Repair: Closing a hole in the wall between the heart’s upper chambers.
  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) Repair: Closing a hole in the wall between the heart’s lower chambers.
  • Tetralogy of Fallot Repair: Correcting multiple congenital heart defects in one surgery.
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Closure: Sealing an abnormal blood vessel connection in the heart.
  • Coarctation of the Aorta Repair: Correcting a narrowed aorta.
Aneurysm Repair
  • Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Surgery to fix a bulge in the aorta.
  • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Repairing an aneurysm in the upper part of the aorta.
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Repair: Repairing an aneurysm in the lower part of the aorta.
Heart Transplant
  • Orthotopic Heart Transplant: Replacing a diseased heart with a healthy donor heart.
  • Heterotopic Heart Transplant: Attaching a donor heart to the existing heart for support.
Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) Implantation
  • Bridge to Transplant (BTT): Using LVAD as a temporary measure before a heart transplant.
  • Destination Therapy: Long-term use of LVAD for patients not eligible for a heart transplant.
Arrhythmia Surgery
  • Maze Procedure: Surgical treatment for atrial fibrillation by creating scar tissue to block abnormal signals.
  • Pacemaker Implantation: Device implantation to regulate abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Implantation: Device to correct life-threatening arrhythmias.
  • Catheter Ablation: Destroying problematic heart tissue causing arrhythmias.
Transcatheter Procedures
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): Minimally invasive valve replacement procedure.
  • Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair (TMVR): Minimally invasive repair of the mitral valve.
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI): Also known as angioplasty, to open blocked arteries.
Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery
  • Robot-Assisted Surgery: Enhanced precision and smaller incisions using robotic systems.
  • Mini-Thoracotomy: Smaller incisions for less invasive heart surgeries.
  • Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS): Using a thoracoscope for minimally invasive procedures.
Endovascular Surgery
  • Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR): Minimally invasive repair of aortic aneurysms using stent grafts.
  • Carotid Artery Stenting: Procedure to open narrowed carotid arteries and prevent strokes.
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)
  • ECMO Support: Providing heart and lung support for patients with severe cardiac and respiratory failure.

Non-Invasive Procedures

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG): To monitor heart rhythms.
  • Echocardiography: Ultrasound imaging of the heart.
  • Holter Monitoring: Continuous ECG monitoring over 24-48 hours.
  • Stress Tests: Assess heart function under stress (exercise or pharmacologic).
  • Interventional Cardiology
  • Angioplasty (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention – PCI): To open blocked arteries using a balloon.
  • Stenting: Placement of a stent to keep arteries open.
  • Atherectomy: Removal of plaque from arteries.
  • Embolic Protection: To capture debris during angioplasty.
  • Thrombectomy: Removal of blood clots from blood vessels.

Electrophysiology Procedures

  • Pacemaker Implantation: Device to regulate heartbeats.
  • Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD): To correct life-threatening arrhythmias.
  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT): For heart failure treatment.
  • Catheter Ablation: Destroying problematic heart tissue causing arrhythmias.

Surgical Treatments

  • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG): Creating a new path for blood to flow to the heart.
  • Heart Valve Repair/Replacement: Fixing or replacing damaged heart valves.
  • Aneurysm Repair: Surgery to fix a bulge in the wall of an artery.
  • Heart Transplant: Replacing a diseased heart with a healthy donor heart.
  • Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD): Mechanical pump for patients with heart failure.

Minimally Invasive Surgery

  • Robot-Assisted Surgery: Enhanced precision in cardiac surgery.
  • Mini-Thoracotomy: Smaller incision surgeries for valve repair or bypass.
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): For valve replacement without open-heart surgery.

Advanced Imaging Techniques

  • Cardiac MRI: Detailed images of heart structures.
  • Cardiac CT: Comprehensive imaging to assess heart and blood vessels.
  • Nuclear Cardiology: Imaging to evaluate heart blood flow and function.

Lifestyle and Rehabilitation Programs

  • Cardiac Rehabilitation: Programs focusing on exercise, education, and counseling to improve heart health.
  • Diet and Lifestyle Counseling: Guidance on maintaining a heart-healthy lifestyle.

Emerging Treatments and Technologies

  • Stem Cell Therapy: Investigational treatment for heart regeneration.
  • Gene Therapy: Research on correcting genetic heart conditions.
  • Regenerative Medicine: Techniques to repair damaged heart tissue.

India’s healthcare system supports these treatments through a combination of public and private hospitals, many of which are equipped with state-of-the-art technology and internationally trained cardiologists. Additionally, India is known for its cost-effective treatment options compared to many Western countries, making it a popular destination for medical tourism in cardiac care. 

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